Brief Introduction of Saudi Arabia-Saudi Arabia (2022)

Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is the largest Arab state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab world (after Algeria). It is bordered by Jordanand Iraq on the north and northeast, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the east, Oman on the southeast, and Yemen on the south. The Red Sea lies to its west, and the Persian Gulf lies to the east. Saudi Arabia has an area of approximately 2,250,000 km2(870,000 sq mi), and it has an estimated population of 27 million, of which 9 million are registered foreign expatriates and an estimated 2 million are illegal immigrants. Saudi nationals comprise an estimated 16 million people.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded by Abdul-Aziz bin Saud (known for most of his career as Ibn Saud) in 1932, although the conquests which eventually led to the creation of the Kingdom began in 1902 when he captured Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud, referred to in Arabic as Al Saud. The Saudi Arabian government, which has been an absolute monarchy since its inception, refers to its system of government as being Islamic, though this is contested by many due to its strong basis in Wahhabism and Salafism, which are minority schools of thought in Islam. The kingdom is sometimes called "The Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca), and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam.
Saudi Arabia has the world's second largest oil reserves which are concentrated largely in the Eastern Province and oil accounts for more than 95% of exports and 70% of government revenue. This facilitates the creation of a welfare state although the share of the non-oil economy is growing recently. It has also the world's sixth largest natural gas reserves.

(Video) SAPRAC - Introduction to Saudi Arabia

Politics
Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy, although, according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with Sharia (that is, Islamic law) and the Quran. The Quran and the Sunnah (the traditions of Muhammad) are declared to be the country's constitution, but no written modern constitution has ever been written for Saudi Arabia, and Saudi Arabia remains the only Arab Nation where no national elections have ever taken place, since its creation. No political parties or national elections are permitted and according to The Economist's 2010 Democracy Index, the Saudi government is the seventh most authoritarian regime from among the 167 countries rated.
On 25 September 2011, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah has announced that women will have the right to stand and vote in future local elections and join the advisory Shura council as full members.

(Video) Brief Introduction About Saudi Arabia

Administrative divisions
Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces. The provinces are further divided into 118 governorates. This number includes the 13 provincial capitals, which have a different status as municipalities headed by mayors. The governorates are further subdivided into sub-governorates.

(Video) Brief Introduction of Saudi Arabia

Economy
Saudi Arabia's command economy is petroleum-based; roughly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry. The oil industry comprises about 45% of Saudi Arabia's nominal gross domestic product, compared with 40% from the private sector. Saudi Arabia officially has about 260 billion barrels (4.1×1010 m3) of oil reserves, comprising about one-fifth of the world's proven total petroleum reserves.
The government is attempting to promote growth in the private sector by privatizing industries such as power and telecommunications. Saudi Arabia announced plans to begin privatizing the electricity companies in 1999, which followed the ongoing privatization of the telecommunications company. Shortages of water and rapid population growth may constrain government efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural products.
In the 1990s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth. Per capita income fell from a high of $11,700 at the height of the oil boom in 1981 to $6,300 in 1998. Increases in oil prices since 2000 have helped boost per capita GDP to $17,000 in 2007 dollars, or about $7,400 adjusted for inflation. Taking into account the impact of the real oil price changes on the Kingdom's real gross domestic income, the real command-basis GDP was computed to be 330.381 billion 1999 USD in 2010.
Oil price increases of 2008–2009 have triggered a second oil boom, pushing Saudi Arabia's budget surplus to $28 billion (110SR billion) in 2005.Tadawul (the Saudi stock market index) finished 2004 with a massive 76.23% to close at 4437.58 points. Market capitalization was up 110.14% from a year earlier to stand at $157.3 billion (589.93SR billion), which makes it the biggest stock market in the Middle East.‏
OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) limits its members' oil production based on their "proven reserves." The higher their reserves, the more OPEC allows them to produce.[citation needed] Saudi Arabia's published reserves have shown little change since 1980, with the main exception being an increase of about 100 billion barrels (1.6×1010 m3) between 1987 and 1988. Matthew Simmons has suggested that Saudi Arabia is greatly exaggerating its reserves and may soon show production declines.
Saudi Arabia is one of only a few fast-growing countries in the world with a relatively high per capita income of $24,200 (2010). Saudi Arabia will be launching six "economic cities" (e.g. King Abdullah Economic City) which are planned to be completed by 2020. These six new industrialized cities are intended to diversify the economy of Saudi Arabia, and are expected to increase the per capita income. The King of Saudi Arabia has announced that the per capita income is forecast to rise from $15,000 in 2006 to $33,500 in 2020. The cities will be spread around Saudi Arabia to promote diversification for each region and their economy, and the cities are projected to contribute $150 billion to the GDP.
However the urban areas of Riyadh and Jeddah are expected to contribute $287 billion dollars by the year 2020.

(Video) Brief Introduction of Saudi ArabIa

Education
Education is free at all levels. The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools. A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track. Girls are able to attend school, but fewer girls attend than boys. This disproportion is reflected in the rate of literacy, which exceeds 85 percent among males and is about 70 percent among females. Classes are segregated by gender. Higher education has expanded rapidly, with large numbers of Universities and colleges being founded particularly since 2000. Institutions of higher education include the country's first University, King Saud University founded in 1957, the Islamic University at Medina founded in 1961, and the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah founded in 1967. Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine. Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions.
The study of Islam dominates the Saudi educational system. In particular, the memorization by rote of large parts of the Qu'ran, its interpretation and understanding (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum. Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. As a consequence, Saudi youth "generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs" according to the CIA. Similarly, The Chronicle of Higher Education wrote in 2010 that "the country needs educated young Saudis with marketable skills and a capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship. That's not generally what Saudi Arabia's educational system delivers, steeped as it is in rote learning and religious instruction."

(Video) History of Saudi Arabia

Index

(Video) The History of Saudi Arabia (House of Saud)

(Video) History of Saudi Arabia (Part One) in Urdu and Hindi | Social Lens

FAQs

What is the brief history of Saudi Arabia? ›

Saudi Arabia traces its roots back to the earliest civilizations of the Arabian Peninsula. Over the centuries, the peninsula has played an important role in history as an ancient trade center and as the birthplace of Islam, one of the world's major monotheistic religions.

What is important about Saudi Arabia? ›

Saudi Arabia is famous for oil, to be the origin of Islam, Arabian horses, the world's largest sand desert (Rub' Al Khali), the world's largest oasis (Al-Ahsa), Arabian coffee, oil, countless palaces, veiled women, countless mosques, Bedouins on horses, Bedouins on camels, Bedouins with falcons, sword-wielding dance ...

What is the full name of Saudi Arabia? ›

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Arabian Peninsula. It occupies an area about the size of the United States east of the Mississippi River.

How has Saudi Arabia become a rich country short answer? ›

Petroleum. The economy of Saudi Arabia is dominated by petroleum and its associated industries. In terms of oil reserves, Saudi Arabia ranks first internationally, with about one-fifth of the world's known reserves.

What's the definition of Saudi? ›

Saudi or Saudi Arabian means belonging or relating to Saudi Arabia or to its people, language, or culture. Saudi officials have dismissed such reports as rumours.

How did Saudi Arabia got its name? ›

It is a very young country in a very old part of the world. It formed in 1932, when a tribal leader named Abdulaziz al-Saud conquered an area three times the size of Texas and then named it after himself. He and his first generation of sons have ruled Saudi Arabia ever since.

What makes Saudi special? ›

Its distinguished geographical location made it a point of intersection of international trade routes through all the ages. Being the cradle of Arabism and Islam and the country of The Two Holy Mosques. Being a crossroads of cultures and a bridge for cultural communication.

Why do we protect Saudi Arabia? ›

The core logic underpinning the relationship is that the United States of America (USA) provides military protection of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in exchange for a reliable oil supply from the Saudis, pricing of oil in USA dollars, and Saudi support for USA foreign policy operations across the world.

Why is Saudi important to Muslims? ›

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the heartland of Islam, the birthplace of its history, the site of the two holy mosques and the focus of Islamic devotion and prayer. Saudi Arabia is committed to preserving the Islamic tradition in all areas of government and society.

What is the old name of Arabia? ›

Saudi Arabia, before it became Saudi Arabia, was made up of two kingdoms; Hejaj and Najd and their dependent states. These two kingdoms became unified under the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and would gain recognition as an independent nation in 1932.

When was Arabia founded? ›

Which is the richest country in the world 2022? ›

Here are the 10 richest countries in the world:
  • United States - $1.08 Tn.
  • Germany - $215.02 Bn.
  • Japan - $211.51 Bn.
  • France - $148.94 Bn.
  • United Kingdom - $130.68 Bn.
  • Italy - $113.03 Bn.
  • China - $89.65 Bn.
  • Canada - $87.89 Bn.

Is Saudi Arabia rich or poor? ›

The economy of Saudi Arabia is the largest in the Arab States and the eighteenth largest in the world. A permanent and founding member of the OPEC, Saudi Arabia is also a member of the G20 forum as one of the world's largest economies.

What is the richest country in the world? ›

The United States is the richest country in the world with the highest GDP, as of 2021. China is the second richest country in the world with a $17.734 trillion GDP.

Who were the first to live in Saudi Arabia? ›

The modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman, known in the West as Ibn Saud. Abdulaziz united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family.

What was the first Saudi state called? ›

The Emirate of Diriyah (Arabic: إمارة الدرعية), also known as the First Saudi State, was established in February 1727 (1139 AH).

What is the most important thing in Saudi Arabia? ›

Oil. Undoubtedly, Saudi Arabia is primarily known for its large oil reserves that are predominantly present in its eastern province The country is known to possess about 17% of the world's proven petroleum reserves. It has around one-fifth of the world's total conventional oil reserves.

What is Saudi dress called? ›

Saudi men and boys, whatever their job or social status, wear the traditional dress called a thobe or thawb, which has been called the "Arabic dress". During warm and hot weather, Saudi men and boys wear white thobes.

Is Saudi a beautiful country? ›

From sand dunes to beautiful beaches to mountains to coral reefs, Saudi Arabia is home to geographical contrasts. Being massively huge, the country is much more than camels, deserts, oil and Bedouins. Home to a large number of tourist attractions, this majestic country is a traveller's delight.

What is the biggest problem in Saudi Arabia? ›

The double blow of depressed oil prices and the COVID-19 pandemic is placing unique pressure on the Saudi economy. COVID-19 has further devalued oil and wreaked havoc on the non-energy sectors Saudi Arabia is trying to develop in the name of diversification.

Is Saudi Arabia a good place to live? ›

Saudi Arabia has a lower cost of living than many other Middle Eastern destinations. Most expats enjoy a luxurious lifestyle, especially if their employment package includes housing, transport and education allowances. Compound accommodation is expensive and international school fees are high.

How safe is Saudi Arabia? ›

Reconsider travel to Saudi Arabia due to the threat of missile and drone attacks on civilian facilities. Exercise increased caution in Saudi Arabia due to terrorism. Some areas have increased risk. Read the entire Travel Advisory.

Who is leader of Muslims? ›

The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.

How important is religion in Saudi? ›

It plays a dominant role in the country's governance and legal system, deeply influences culture and daily life. The official religion is Islam, with the majority of Saudi citizens being Sunni Muslims (roughly 90%), typically following the Hanbali school of Islamic jurisprudence.

What are the top 3 religions in Saudi Arabia? ›

According to official statistics 90% of Saudi Arabian citizens are Sunni Muslims, 10% are Shia. More than 30% of the population is made up of foreign workers who are predominantly but not entirely Muslim. The two holiest cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina, are in Saudi Arabia.

How Old Is Arabia language? ›

Origin of the Arabic Language

Arabic has been around for at least 1,500 years. Historians believe that the Arabic language came from Arabian Peninsula. Old Arabic was the beginning of Arabic dialects. Safaitic dialect is the earliest dialect in old Arabic, which the Syro-Arabian desert nomadic tribes used.

Who are the first Arabs? ›

The first mention of Arabs appeared in the mid-9th century BCE, as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the northern Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, as well as the succeeding Neo-Babylonian, Achaemenid, Seleucid, and Parthian empires.

What is the oldest city in Arabia? ›

Madā'in Ṣāliḥ or Hegra (Arabic: الحِجر), also called Al-Ḥijr, is an ancient city located in the northern part of the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia, about 1,400 km (870 mi) to the north of Riyadh. Madā'in Ṣāliḥ is considered to be one of the most important and oldest ancient cities in the country.

What type of land is Arabia? ›

Arabia is a Peninsula. Three sides of it is surrounded by water.

Who lived in Arabia? ›

The ancient Arabians, or Arabes as they were called by the Hellenes, were a Semitic people. One must note that the Arabians were not a single people but multiple smaller kingdoms and tribes. Arabia was home to great city builders and nomads alike. They were of great influence on many occasions in the ancient period.

Where did Arabia start? ›

Proto-Arabs are presumed to have originated from what is now northern Arabia, Jordan and southern Syria. From their urheimat, ancient Arabs established themselves as far as Babylon, Sinai and further into Arabia, over time replacing some of the old languages there such as Dadanitic and Taymanitic.

Who Rules Arabia? ›

The government of Saudi Arabia is led by the monarch, King Salman, who acceded to the throne on 23 January 2015. No political parties or national elections are permitted, and according to The Economist's 2010 Democracy Index, the Saudi government was the seventh-most authoritarian regime among the 167 countries rated.

Was Arabia a country? ›

In the current definition, Arabia consists of seven 'independent' nations. Saudi Arabia occupies about four-fifths of the peninsula. The rest of the land is shared by Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), and Yemen; and there is the archipelago of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf.

Which country is No 1 poor country? ›

Burundi is the world's poorest country followed by Central African Republic, DR Congo, South Sudan and Somalia as the poorest. The richest countries are Luxembourg, Singapore, Ireland, Qatar and Switzerland. Soberingly, 19 of the 20 poorest countries are all located in Africa.

What is the 1st world country? ›

The term First World originally refers to the capitalist, industrialized countries, within the Western European and United States' sphere of influence, (e.g. member states of the NATO).

Which country is No 1 in world? ›

The overall ranking of Best Countries measure global performance on a variety of metrics. Switzerland is the best country in the world for 2022.

Which city is richest in Saudi Arabia? ›

Dhahran

Who is richer Saudi or US? ›

The United States per capita income more than doubles that of Saudi Arabia. According to data assembled by the World Bank, per capita income for an American was $59,160 in 2017. That same year, Saudi per capita income was $20,090, or 2.9 times lower than the US rate.

Is Saudi Arabia a first world country? ›

Definition of First World

Many of the countries made rich by extracting oil reserves since the end of the Cold War, like Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and others are now also considered economically developed First World countries.

Which country is richest in Asia? ›

Here are the 10 richest countries in Asia:
  • Japan - $211.51 Bn.
  • China - $89.65 Bn.
  • India - $59.60 Bn.
  • Turkey - $25.03 Bn.
  • Pakistan - $13.14 Bn.
  • Iran - $10.98 Bn.
  • Indonesia - $10.44 Bn.
  • South Korea - $9.00 Bn.

Is Dubai a rich country? ›

#Dubai is the richest city in the Middle East and Africa (MEA) and the 29th wealthiest in the world according to New World Wealth. Dubai's population of HNWIs, rose to 54,000 in June 2021, up by 3.8 percent from 52,000 last December.

What is the top 5 richest country? ›

The top ten richest countries according to the IMF included Brunei, the United States and Norway. The leader of the list in 2022 is a small European country.
...
Top 5 richest countries in natural resources.
StateValue of resources
Russia$75.7 trillion
USA$45 trillion
Saudi Arabia$34.4 trillion
Canada$33.2 trillion
1 more row

What are some history facts about Saudi Arabia? ›

The modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman, known in the West as Ibn Saud. Abdulaziz united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family.

What are some major events in Saudi Arabia history? ›

10 Major events that changed the destiny of Saudi Arabia
  • Discovery of oil.
  • King Abdul Aziz and US President meeting in 1945.
  • Increased Saudi Arabia's share in Aramco.
  • 1979's attack on the Grand Mosque.
  • Iraq invasion of Kuwait.
  • A Saudi joining Al-Qaeda.
  • Kingdom's action against Al-Qaeda.
  • Iran's attempt of expansion.

What was Saudi Arabia before it was Saudi Arabia? ›

The history of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia begins properly on September 23, 1932, when by royal decree the dual kingdom of the Hejaz and Najd with its dependencies, administered since 1927 as two separate units, was unified under the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

How old is Arabian history? ›

The first mention of Arabs appeared in the mid-9th century BCE, as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the northern Arabian Peninsula.

What was Arabia called before? ›

From 106 CE to 630 CE northwestern Arabia was under the control of the Roman Empire, which renamed it Arabia Petraea. A few nodal points were controlled by Iranian Parthian and Sassanian empires.

What makes Saudi culture unique? ›

The culture of Saudi Arabia is a rich one that has been shaped by its Islamic heritage, its historical role as an ancient trade center, and its Bedouin traditions. Saudi society has experienced tremendous development over the past several decades.

What are the 3 main industries of Saudi Arabia? ›

Saudi Arabia: Economy
Economic TriviaSaudi Arabia is the world's largest petroleum exporter.
Top IndustriesCrude Oil Production; Petroleum Refining; Basic Petrochemicals; Ammonia
1 more row

What was the first city in Saudi Arabia? ›

Madā'in Ṣāliḥ or Hegra (Arabic: الحِجر), also called Al-Ḥijr, is an ancient city located in the northern part of the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia, about 1,400 km (870 mi) to the north of Riyadh. Madā'in Ṣāliḥ is considered to be one of the most important and oldest ancient cities in the country.

What was the First Saudi State called? ›

The Emirate of Diriyah (Arabic: إمارة الدرعية), also known as the First Saudi State, was established in February 1727 (1139 AH).

Where did Arab begin? ›

Proto-Arabs are presumed to have originated from what is now northern Arabia, Jordan and southern Syria. From their urheimat, ancient Arabs established themselves as far as Babylon, Sinai and further into Arabia, over time replacing some of the old languages there such as Dadanitic and Taymanitic.

What kind of language is Arabic? ›

Arabic, which first emerged in the northwest of the Arabian Peninsula, is a member of the Semitic family of languages which also includes Hebrew and Aramaic. Whilst very early manifestations of Arabic date back as far as the 8th century BCE, the language has been defined and refined over a considerable period of time.

What culture is Arab? ›

In modern usage, it embraces any of the Arabic-speaking peoples living in the vast region from Mauritania, on the Atlantic coast of Africa, to southwestern Iran, including the entire Maghrib of North Africa, Egypt and Sudan, the Arabian Peninsula, and Syria and Iraq.

Videos

1. History of Saudi Arabia (Part One) in Urdu and Hindi | Social Lens
(Social Lens)
2. The History of Saudi Arabia (House of Saud)
(Epimetheus)
3. A Short History of Saudi Arabia
(Get.factual)
4. HIGHLIGHTS | Argentina SHOCKED by Saudi Arabia in Group C - 2022 World Cup
(ITV Sport)
5. Ibn Saud: The First King of Saudi Arabia | Tooky History
(Tooky History)
6. Brief History Of Wahabism And Saudi Arabia
(Anti Pakode Commission)

Top Articles

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Kimberely Baumbach CPA

Last Updated: 10/24/2022

Views: 5760

Rating: 4 / 5 (41 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Kimberely Baumbach CPA

Birthday: 1996-01-14

Address: 8381 Boyce Course, Imeldachester, ND 74681

Phone: +3571286597580

Job: Product Banking Analyst

Hobby: Cosplaying, Inline skating, Amateur radio, Baton twirling, Mountaineering, Flying, Archery

Introduction: My name is Kimberely Baumbach CPA, I am a gorgeous, bright, charming, encouraging, zealous, lively, good person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.